at the Diet of Pentecost in Mainz

A narrative on the exhibition "Barbarossa - The art of sovereign rule"
28 October – 5 February 2023
LWL–Museum für Kunst und Kultur, Münster

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1 n🍦 Festival

  • Barbarossa added Prince Henry.

  • Barbarossa added Prince Frederick.

  • Barbarossa:

    Hi boys! I’m throwing a party in Mainz for you and everyone is invited. And I really mean: everyone!

  • Friedrich:

    Just another tournament, Father?⚔️

  • Barbarossa:

    Much more than that…

  • Friedrich:

    What joyful news, honoured Father. This party will enable you to exhibit your power most splendidly.

  • Henry:

    What is the occasion for this event that honours my brother and myself?

  • Barbarossa:

    Come on, boys! Take it easy! #alittlepartyingneverkillednobody.

  • Henry:

    Excuse me Father, but the reason for such a big feast must be communicated.

  • Barbarossa:

    True! I intend to upgrade your lives and make both of you knights. #pimpmysons

  • Friedrich:

    we’re knights at last! What an honour!🙂

  • Henry:

    Let’s inform our loyal!

Pentecost 1184

On the occasion of the Diet of Pentecost, probably the most splendid medieval feast ever, thousands of people travel to Mainz from all parts of the Holy Roman Empire to celebrate, network and show off. Everything focuses on one of the most powerful men of the time: Emperor Frederick I, alias Barbarossa.

Pre­paring the Imperial Diet

(i) Zurich Hiltbolt of Schwangau Codex Manesse, ca. 1300 – 1340, fol. 146r, Universitätsbibliothek Heidelberg https://doi.org/10.11588/diglit.2222#0287

Events of major historical significance occur in Germany and Europe between 1100 and 1200 AD: various cities, including Leipzig, Munich and Lübeck are founded; agriculture develops thanks to the improvement of ploughing techniques; a new economic system appears; several universities are founded; and God becomes less distant for humans. The Imperial Diet that gathers around Barbarossa in the late 12th century is to become legendary.

1 n🍦 Festival

  • 23 April 1184
  • Gruppe „1 n🍦 Festival“

  • Archbishop Conrad of Mainz, Archbishop Phillip of Cologne, Archbishop Wichmann of Magdeburg, Abbot of Fulda, Duke Frederick of Bohemia, Duke Leopold V of Austria, Duke Bernard of Saxony, Landgrave Louis of Thuringia, Conrad, Count Palatine of the Rhine, Baldwin V, Count of Hainaut (many more will be added)

  • Barbarossa:

    Hey bros! I’m having a big fat party in Mainz on the Rhine on Pentecost. Are you ready?

  • Archbishop Conrad of Mainz

    Thanks a lot, Your Imperial Majesty, for organising such a glorious festival in my capital city. God bless you and your family.

  • Barbarossa:


  • Duke Frederick of Bohemia:

    What an honour! Beg your pardon, Your Imperial Majesty, but is there a particular reason for this festival?

  • Barbarossa:

    I intend to knight my two sons. That’s a good reason, isn’t it?

  • Archbishop Philip of Cologne:

    Thank you for the invitation. I’ll be there. What’s about +1?

  • Barbarossa:

    Yeah, sure, no doubt. 😎

  • Abbot of Fulda:

    Do you also intend to feast all of us?

  • Barbarossa:

    Sure, we’ll have a good time! #escalation Plenty of villains at our service.

  • Barbarossa:

    😀 Autocorrect again. “Attentive servants” should be the word.

  • Count Baldwin

    Your Imperial Majesty, shall I send my servants now and order them to erect the marquees?

  • Babrarossa:

    Certainly not. Since everything must be perfect, I intend to have a wooden town built and complemented with resplendent marquees from the King of England. Mega-glamping. #yolo

  • Duke Leopold V:

    I’ll ride to Mainz with the noblest knights from all over Austria. There will also be tournaments, of course?

  • Babrarossa:

    Didn’t you read the line-up? Scroll up.

(i) Marbach/Schwarzenthann Abbey (Upper Alsace)
Emperor Frederick I Barbarossa (detail) Ca. 1180
Universitätsbibliothek Freiburg im Breisgau: Hs. 367

Frederick I, alias Barbarossa – The king of Germany and Holy Roman Emperor is to receive his nickname from Italians in the 13th century due to his alleged red beard. What is certain, however, is that in the Middle Ages red hair and beard symbolised malice and irascibility. Which means that the nickname was definitively not an affectionate one...

(i) Marbach/Schwarzenthann Abbey (Upper Alsace)
Emperor Frederick I Barbarossa (detail) Ca. 1180
Universitätsbibliothek Freiburg im Breisgau: Hs. 367


Invitations In the Middle Ages, letters are the only way to communicate at a distance. This requires, of course, that the sender can either write or pay for a scribe, and that the addressee can read. The participants in the Imperial Diet of Pentecost in Mainz are most likely invited by circulars, with copies of the original letter being delivered to royal and princely courts where they are further copied and dispatched to the final addresses. Dispatching the invitations is the first challenge of the event, as the messengers must ride their horses across the empire, sometimes for several months, in order to deliver the letters.

The sword as a statement

(i) Weingarten Frederick Barbarossa and his two sons, King Henry and Duke Frederick Miniature from Historia Welforum, 1185, Landesbibliothek Fulda

With all the entertaining events it includes, the Imperial Diet of Pentecost is an ideal occasion for Barbarossa to demonstrate his power in front of his vassals. The more of them come, the more evident is his authority. At the same time, it is an honour for the guests to be invited to such a sumptuous event.

The Imperial Diet of Pentecost serves a clear political objective: the princes Henry and Frederick, sons of Emperor Barbarossa, are to be knighted and declared of age, and the feast is the occasion to demonstrate to the participants that the emperor has ensured his dynastic succession.

(i) Germany Sword with disk pommel 12th century (probably), LWL–Museum für Archäologie Herne

This sword bearing the inscription “In the name of God” is a typical knight’s weapon from the 12th century. Contemporary texts describing a knighting ceremony specify that the new knight is to receive not only a sword, but also spurs and a sword belt.

Demonstration of power

Since most people in the Middle Ages—including Barbarossa—can neither read nor write, a ruler must present himself in front of as large an audience as possible to communicate and must relay on witnesses to avoid than his decisions, deeds and statement fall in oblivion. This is exactly what Barbarossa does on the occasion of the Diet of Pentecost in Mainz, a magnificent feast the tale of which should be retold “until the Judgment Day”, according to medieval sources.

Such mass events are still common today. President Donald Trump, for example, accused the press of using faked photographs to minimise the number of people who participated in his inauguration ceremony in 2017.

And starting in 1933, the Nazis staged numerous large-scale events with thousands of people cheering for the Führer.

Etiquette, please!

Ceremonies and rituals that honour the participants and underscore their rank play an important role during the Diet of Pentecost.

  • Some servants are so far down the hierarchy in medieval society that they are not even allowed to give the noble men and ladies water to wash their hands at table. This is the origin of the German idiom “Jemandem nicht das Wasser reichen können”, equivalent to the English idiom “Can’t hold a candle to someone”.

  • Many elaborately designed aquamaniles (jug-type vessels used in the Middle Ages for washing hands) underscore the importance of this ritual.

Rituals are particularly important during official state visits. The handshake, for example, a ritual that originated in Ancient times, evidences that both parties meet unarmed and with peaceful intentions. To this day, handshaking symbolises an alliance based on trust.

Everything’s alright

Each of the three estates of the realm fulfils certain functions in the Holy Roman Empire: the clergy ensure the salvation of souls, the knights offer protection to those in need, and the peasants, who make up more than ninety percent of the total population, produce food for everybody—including the participants at the lavish banquets held during the Imperial Diet of Pentecost.

Moreover, the development of towns in the Middle Ages resulted not only in the increased importance of the middle classes, but also in more permeability between the three estates, as new professions appeared that still exist in today’s society.

of gifts

Giving gifts is a fundamental component of any feast, and the more valuable the gift, the more the giver will stand out from the other guests.

Particularly appreciated gifts at the Imperial Diet of Pentecost are horses, clothing, gold, and silver given in generous amount to knights and even minstrels. A contemporary source states: “The princes are generous not only to honour the emperor and his sons, but also to make their own fame known far and wide.” The population likewise receives generous gifts, but the noblemen endeavour to preserve the social hierarchy and not to make gifts of inferior values than those of their peers.

Gourmet Oasis

  • Ava:

    Hi folks! Are you ready? Finally we’re off! 👍️

  • Ava:

    You’re all great. Without you the Diet could never take place. With all these snacks and drinks we could have three more parties, haha. #afterparty Also on behalf of the crown a big THX. #onlycrewloveistruelove

  • Thomas:

    On behalf of the crown, LOL.

  • Constance:

    Barbarossa doesn’t even know that we exist!

  • Edgar:

    I spent 12 months building the wooden stands, day and night. And what have I got out of it?

  • Loretta:

    I’ve got backache from all the wild thyme picking.

  • Ava:

    (@ Loretta ) The lamb will be fantastic. #foodporn

  • Loretta:

    Don’t give a fig. We’re not getting any of it anyway.

  • Hedwig:

    What shift do I have tomorrow?

  • Ava:

    Late shift, from sunset. Just in time for the flute concert by Ladies of the Long Breath.

  • Hedwig:

    The night shift is always a horror with all the drunken guys. #metoo

  • Ava:

    Definitely! Take care and always leave the marquees in pairs at night.

Seating to the left of the emperor

Who is to be seated next to Barbarossa touches off a dispute. Participants in the Diet of Pentecost report that Abbot Conrad of Fulda demands, as his traditional right, to sit on the emperor’s left. Barbarossa asks Philip of Heinsberg, archbishop of Cologne, to grant Conrad’s wish. But Philip, who already feels duped by the emperor for other reasons, regards this demand as an attack on his rank and asks Barbarossa the permission to leave the feast. The incident develops into a scandal when numerous vassals of the archbishop also threaten their withdrawal from the Diet, so that the emperor finally relents.

Professionals with swords and horses

Thousands of knights attend the Diet of Pentecost and are looking forward to the best moment of the feast: a jousting tournament. Barbarossa is expecting images of the event to consolidate his power.

Knighthood and its symbolism

Today, a knight’s gleaming armour symbolises heroism, courage, virility, piety, and war, but the essence of knighthood changed over the centuries: the knights, originally a mounted troop of armoured soldiers, progressively became a social group of noblemen over the centuries.

Knights attract all the participants’ attention at the Imperial Diet of Pentecost: they not only compete in superb simulated fights, but also attack each other with weapons that cause real injuries.


  • Alexander:

    Dear fellow knights, I turn to you two with my doubts. After endless sleepless nights filled with grief and perplexity, I can no longer conceal my thoughts: the tournament frightens me.

  • Gottfried:

    Come on! What’s wrong with you? What is fear?

  • Rudolf:

    @Gottfried – What’s wrong with YOU? Let him share his worries first!

  • Alexander:

    Please consider my opinion respectfully.

  • Gottfried:

    Of course, #brocode.

  • Alexander:

    I observe how chivalry is changing at the imperial Court. Fantasies of violence spread among the group since the tournament in Mainz was announced. The hunger to win the competition has toxic consequences.

  • Gottfried:

    Toxic hunger to win? I call it healthy fighting spirit!

  • Rudolf:

    His Imperial Majesty expects us to fight to entertain his guests.

  • Gottfried:

    We are pious noblemen!

  • Alexander:

    Don’t you share my concerns? I fear that similar groups will also develop and that it will lead to violence and brutality.

  • Gottfried:


  • Rudolf:


  • Alexander:

    I’m considering staying at my estate farm and looking after the children.

  • ++ Gottfried has left the group ++

  • Rudolf:

    Sure! Come with your children. Clothilde is giving a workshop on hygiene awareness. That might be more to your taste.

  • This picture of a knight helping a peer to put on his chain mail illustrates the first encyclopaedia ever written by a woman: Abbess Herrad of Landsberg (1125–1195).

  • This “half knight” was part of an aquamanile, a vessel used for washing the hands in the Middle Ages. It shows the type of military equipment that prevailed at the Diet of Pentecost: a chain mail and a nasal helmet.

The knight as an icon?

Literature, films and the media determine how we perceive knights today. They instil social norms in children’s minds based on simplistic images of masculinity instead of offering more complex models.

Powerful women

The distinguished ladies that attend the Diet of Pentecost in Mainz have a variety of functions in medieval society: troubadours adulate them, but they remain property of their noble consorts; some of them are merely decorative accessories, while others dominate rulers in secret;

becoming a nun is often an attractive alternative to marriage for a medieval lady.

Mainz meeting ❤️

  • Beatrice of Burgundy:

    Hey girls! Here we are again! ❤️

  • Cunigunde:

    Wow, RISE AGAINST MILAN?! I always wanted to see it live. 😍

  • Ingrid:

    I’m much more excited about hearing the concert by the Ladies of the Long Breath. They are mega, I’ve heard.

  • Brunhilde:

    In recent days, there is a Frenchman standing under my window, warbling all night long... I hope he won’t be there too.

  • Agnes:

    Do you mean Baldwin the Blue? I think he’s sweet.

  • Brunhilde:

    That’s the one! Have you heard his voice? It destroys all romantic feelings.

  • Agnes:

    Too bad, okay. I have such a huge pimple on my forehead anyway, I can’t show up at the Diet with it.

  • Clothilde:

    Wild thyme! That’s the hit even for skin afflictions, according to Hildegard.

  • Agnes:

    Wild thyme?

  • Clothilde:

    Yes, the plant.😄🌱

    “If you have sick flesh, that is if your skin blossoms like you have mange, take wild thyme, cook it with meat or vegetables, eat it and the flesh of your body will be healed and cleansed from within.”

  • Beatrice:

    My dear girls, don’t distress yourselves so much. You will be beautiful as always! By the way, I have planned a fashion and hygiene awareness workshop for all of you at the old oak tree.👍

  • Cunigunde:

    You are the best, Beatrice!

Role Model

Empress Beatrice of Burgundy (1140/47–1184) plays a decisive role in the organisation of the Diet of Pentecost. She is educated, self-confident, and at ease with courtly standards. She speaks French, Latin, Greek and, since her marriage, German. She attracts all the participants’ gazes. What does she look like?

The arm-shaped reliquary of Charlemagne figures one of the few contemporary portraits of Beatrice but in this picture, only a veil and a crown identify her as the empress. An Italian source provides more details: “She has golden hair, a very beautiful face, white teeth, shining eyes, and very beautiful hands.” The medieval text also mentions a graceful body of small stature, and analyses performed at her sepulchre in Speyr Cathedral confirmed this statement.

Thus we can affirm that Beatrice of Burgundy had the appearance typical of a princess according to modern standards.

  • Beatrice of Burgundy becomes Barbarossa’s second wife when she is barely sixteen. She is crowned queen of Germany in Worms in 1156, and empress in 1167. We know little about her and only two portraits survive: one on the arm-shaped reliquary of Charlemagne, the other...

  • ...on coins that picture her together with her royal and imperial consort.


The Diet of Pentecost is the first occasion on which Beatrice and Frederick meet again after a long separation. Why the imperial couple lives apart towards the end of their lives remains unknown. In previous years, however, Beatrice always accompanied and advised her consort, even on his campaigns in Italy.

Beatrice of Burgundy plays an important political role. In 1167, her coronation enables Barbarossa to score a point in his dispute with Rome, albeit Pope Alexander III was to win the conflict ten years later, making Beatrice’s position as empress no longer legitimate. In 1178, she returns to her native country and rules as queen of Burgundy.


How do you spend your time at an event like the Imperial Diet of Pentecost? Banquets and tournaments are ideal occasions for seeing and being seen. Board games also contribute to entertain the medieval elite.


The knights and the upper classes in general highly appreciate the game of chess because of its tactics, moves and pieces directly inspired by war: two armies fight each other and try to capture the enemy king. Playing chess is very popular among kings, princes, and their knights as it helps to train their strategic talents.

The queen is the most powerful piece in the game of chess: she moves freely in all directions and captures enemy pieces.

The fact that the participants at the Diet of Pentecost court the ladies attending the event evidence both the noblemen’s chivalrous attitude and the important position of the queen and the other women.


  • Burkhard:

    Esteemed chess aficionado! I’m pleased that we were able to compete at chess after the tournament in Mainz was cancelled. But tell me, please: were you very disappointed when I defeated you?

  • Dominicus:

    Such a mocking remark just motivates me to defeat you as soon as possible. Luck was on your side last time, but winning at chess requires much more. Moreover, you should note that the rules you applied might be region-specific, as they were quite different from mine.

  • Burkhard:

    I’m not sure, but it’s a matter of fact that my soapstone pieces glide more smoothly over the chessboard. In addition, I would like to point out that you used your bishop much too warily.

  • Dominicus:

    God forbid! I didn’t know the rule according to which the bishop can move diagonally across the whole board. At the court of my overlord, the bishop only jumps to the square after the next.

  • Burkhard:

    What a feeble explanation! Or do you intend to tell me that it explains why you also moved your queen so warily during the entire game?

  • Dominicus:

    Noble knight, my friend, we basically consider social cohesion when we play chess at my home court. The queen, for example, merely moves to the next diagonal square. In a way, the game of chess is an image of the society you live in. Or are the ladies at your court about to be given more freedom of movement?

  • Burkhard:

    With such an attitude, you will not only lose more chess games, but also your social connexions.

  • Dominicus:

    For my part, I’m afraid you’ve lost any sense of polite, courtly communication.

  • The rapid spread of the game of chess leads to the development of pieces in new materials and with new designs.

  • Various chess pieces

The origin of chess

The game of chess originated in the Middle East and has become one of the world’s most popular strategic board games. In the wake of the cultural exchange resulting from the Crusades, it was first imported in the Mediterranean countries, then spread later to the rest of Europe, and has been known in Germany since the Second Crusade (1147–1149).

Always on the move

Barbarossa and the other emperors and kings of Germany of the Hohenstaufen dynasty have no capital city and travel constantly from one of their castles to another in order to affirm their sovereignty over their subjects by showing themselves in as many places as possible. The Imperial Diet of Pentecost has a similar purpose.

Cultural exchange increases in the wake of the Crusades: the control of territories in the Middle East by Western armies leads to the import of treasures, cultural goods, and social customs into the homelands of the Crusaders. These draught-pieces, for example, were made in Mainz after oriental models.

Large ships like this replica are indispensable for long journeys.

Under the sign of the Cross

Some of the medieval wars between Christians and Muslims aim at reconquering Jerusalem for Christianity, as the Holy City is an important destination for pilgrims. In 1095, as the access to Jerusalem is no longer secure, Pope Urban II preaches for a Holy War and the First Crusade. The Crusaders who participate in the undertaking have a large cross on their armours and the flags of their ships. Emperor Frederick I Barbarossa leads the Third Crusade (1189–1192) until he drowns crossing a river on his way to the Holy Land.

An influential nun

Just one or two pinches of wild thyme make the lamb served at a medieval banquet something very special. Saint Hildegard of Bingen (1098–1179), a Benedictine abbess, underscores the value of wild thyme for both cooking and skin care.

Hildegard of Bingen is another powerful woman living at the time of Barbarossa. She becomes famous through letters, some of which would be corrected in her favour for posterity. Among her pen pals is the emperor… who might prefer she had not addressed some of her admonitions to him.

Hildegard, a phenomenon

Hildegard of Bingen has been benefiting from a positive image for 850 years as an herbalist, theologian, natural healer, musician, scholar, nun, visionary, and poet. Today, many more or less esoteric products are merchandised under her name, from Lenten soup to violet skin cream to healing stones.

Hildegard is the tenth child of a noble couple. A sickly girl, her parents decide to put her in a convent’s care when she is eight years old. She receives a comprehensive education from the nuns and in 1136 she becomes mother superior of the convent, prior to founding a new establishment near Bingen in 1150. Many people come to consult her for her talents as a seer, before she sets out on several pilgrimages.

Hildegard has visions


  • Beatrice:

    Mon chéri, soon we can finally be in each other’s arms again!

  • Barbarossa:

    ❤️ Do you think I have thought of everything for the Diet?

  • Beatrice:

    Keep cool, darling! This is to be the most gorgeous celebration ever in the history of the world. You should drink some of Hildegard’s sedative tea.

  • Barbarossa:

    I hate herbal tea, I’ve told you one hundred times!

  • Beatrice:

    Don’t make such a fuss. Everybody will notice that you’re nervous. What should they think of you?

  • Barbarossa:

    Oh, come on! Stop it! I have more important concerns. What are we going to do if it rains?

  • Beatrice:

    It won’t rain very long. That’s the opinion of my weather app.

  • Barbarossa:

    Are you sure?

  • Beatrice:

    And if it rains cats and dogs, it would be a sign from God, as Hildegard always says.

  • Barbarossa:

    Oh my darling, what would I do without you?

  • Beatrice:

    Are we actually going to have some time together? I’d love to show you my new petticoat 😉

  • Barbarossa:

    Um… That might be difficult, since I’ve really a lot of things to do.

  • Beatrice:

An ignominious end

Hildegard is not the only person who has a critical view of Barbarossa, albeit other contemporaries do not express their opinion directly. At the Diet of Pentecost, for example, people talk not only about his victories, but also about his defeats. A major point of contention, however, is Barbarossa’s policy in Italy: while some noblemen praise him as a peacemaker, others judge his behaviour to be brutal and tyrannical.

This relief, which used to adorn one of Milan’s gates, was possibly created to make a mockery of Barbarossa: the figure crosses his legs in shame and fright and the creature at his feet symbolises the deceitfulness of the emperor’s deeds in Italy.

During the Imperial Diet of Pentecost, a storm damages marquees, destroys the wooden church and kills several participants. As a consequence, the event is interrupted. Was this a sign from God?

Culture­of remembrance

During the Imperial Diet of Pentecost, nobody could imagine that people in Germany would be talking of Barbarossa eight centuries later and that the emperor would be considered a national hero.

After several defeats against Napoleon and the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire, many Germans were longing for a national revival, so that Barbarossa and his medieval empire were revived as models. This gave rise to a myth according to which the Hohenstaufen emperor had fallen into a centuries-long sleep and would resurrect and redeem the German people. Later, the myth would inspire a famous monument erected in the Kyffhäuser mountain range in 1896.

A naked man swimming with a crown on his head: this is definitely not the image of himself that Barbarossa intended to create at the Diet of Pentecost. Despite its humorous appearance, the picture is all the more serious as it figures the emperor’s death by drowning in the Saleph River on 10 June 1190 in today’s Turkey on his way to the Holy Land.

This engraving depicting the Imperial Diet of Pentecost belongs to the many works of art, including books and theatre plays, that celebrate the most glorious events in Barbarossa’s life.

Are you nuts?

  • Barbarossa opened the group "Are you nuts?"

  • Barbarossa added Friedrich Rückert, Heinrich Heine and May Ayim

  • Barbarossa:

    Hey, you poets and subtle thinkers: why did you create this legend?

  • Rückert:

    The German people, Your Imperial Majesty, had nothing left except hope.

  • Heine:

    @Rückert – Your ideas are just as bad as your texts. Excuse my directness, Your Imperial Majesty, but you’re nothing but a comic character.

  • Barbarossa:

    Whaaaat?!?! @Heine – You’re talking utter nonsense!

  • Heine:

    God forbid! It can’t benefit the Crown if you go down in history as a resurrected emperor.

  • Rückert:

    A strong nation needs strong images.

  • Ayim:

    A strong nation? Three roaring old white men arguing in a chat is quite emblematic of your nation. A nation that builds its pride on fantasy figures and applauds when people are murdered en masse...

  • ---Rückert has left the chat

  • ---Heine has left the chat

  • Barbarossa:

    Yes, exactly! Hey May! What’s up with you? I’m totally interested in your culture. Maybe I’ll come by with some homies sometime. I like to travel. #homeiswheremybackpackis

  • ---May Ayim has left the chat

  • Barbarossa:

    Hey guys?... Zero understatement for these futuristic characters. I’d rather go back where the vibe is comfortable for me. BACK TO THE PARTY ➡️ To the Diet of Pentecost in Mainz.



Sabine Buttinger/Jan Keupp, Die Ritter, Stuttgart 2013, pp. 11–54.

Barbara Beuys, Das Leben der Hildegard von Bingen, Frankfurt 2009, pp. 14f and 208.

Knut Görich, Friedrich Barbarossa. Eine Biographie, Munich 2011, pp. 166, 505–514 and 587–591.

Knut Görich, Kaiserin Beatrix, in: Karl-Heinz Ruess, Frauen der Staufer, Göppingen 2006, pp. 43–43 and 58.

Martina Hartmann, Beatrix, in: Amalia Flössel, Die Kaiserinnen des Mittelalters, Regensburg 2011, pp. 197 –212.

Jan Keupp, Die erste Hühnerfarm zu Mainz – Zu Ökonomie und Logistik der Hoffeste, in: Alfried Wieczorek et al., Die Staufer und Italien – Drei Innovationsregionen im mittelalterlichen Europa, Darmstadt 2010, pp. 277–282.

Jan Keupp, Das Kaisertum steckt im Detail – Imperiale Kleiderformen im 12. Jahrhundert, in: Stefan Burkhardt et al., Staufisches Kaisertum im 12. Jahrhundert. Konzepte – Netzwerke – Politische Praxis, Regensburg 2010, pp. 361–382.

Jessica Keutz, Das Selbstverständnis der Wöltingeroder Zisterzenserinnen, in: Wolfenbüttler Notizen zu Buchgeschichte 37, Heft 1/2, 2012, pp. 67–74.

Stefan Lang et al., Wie wäscht man ein Kettenhemd?, Göppingen 2014, pp. 68f.

Antonius van der Linde, Geschichte des Schachspiels, Dresden 2018.

Gerhard Lubich, Das Kaiserliche, das Höfische und der Konsens auf dem Mainzer Hoffest (1184) – Konstruktion, Inszenierung und Darstellung gesellschaftlichen Zusammenhalts am Ende des 12. Jahrhundert, pp. 209-221.

Olivia Mayer, Friedrich I. und Beatrix von Burgund, in: Kaiser und die Säulen der Macht, pp. 358.

Ferdinand Vetter et al., Das Schachzabelbuch Kunrats von Ammenhausen, Frauenfeld

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